Lars Kestner Biography – – Lars Kestner Biography and List of Works – Lars Kestner Lars Kestner Is the author of books such as Quantitative Trading Strategies. In , the quant trader Lars Kestner published a book introducing the K Ratio as a complement to the Sharpe Ratio. In , he modified the K Ratio and. Trading Systems Emilio Tomasini. Mastering the Trade, Second Edition: Tradings Systems That Work: Active Equity Management Xinfeng Zhou. quantitative.

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In summary, we see that the Zephyr K-Ratio has three characteristics that distinguish it from the Sharpe Ratio:. The measure of risk kstner the standard deviation of the portfolio’s return series. One should perhaps not speculate before empirical data has kesner examined, but kewtner seems plausible that normality of the estimation errors is no less likely than normality of the logarithmic period returns.

It’s time for an exact definition. To this end, a trend line is fitted to the logarithmic cumulative return graph See Figure 7 for an example of the trend line.

We see that this is the same picture as Figure 3, except that there is less granularity. The graph of Fund A has visibly more deviation from a straight line than that of Fund B. This is due to the fact that these classical MPT statistics are inherently unable to distinguish between portfolios that differ only by the order in which the period returns occur. Home Contact Lads Help Free delivery worldwide. It is perhaps noteworthy that these trend lines, although not often encountered in portfolio theory, are often used to show long-term trends of certain markets such as the stock or bond market.

Fortunately, mathematicians have already developed a statistic that measures this behaviour: Just like the Sharpe Ratio, the Zephyr K-Ratio is a quotient of a measure of reward kestneer a measure of risk.

Technical traders study larx and build their trading programs around – aspects of market and investor behavior that lead quantitative regularly occurring patterns forex stock prices.

From Figure 5, we see that even the annualized excess return vs.

As mentioned earlier, the cumulative lestner graph of a perfectly riskless investment on a logarithmic scale is a straight line. Clearly, it is preferable only ever to compare portfolios with the same amount of data.

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To calculate the Zephyr K-Ratio, one should first replace the dates on the horizontal axis of the portfolio’s cumulative return graph with consecutive integers starting at 0. The Zephyr K-Ratio’s measure of reward uses a trend line to the logarithmic cumulative return graph, thus eliminating the end point sensitivity of a portfolio’s cumulative return. This should not be interpreted as Zephyr taking credit for the ratio.

There’s a problem loading this menu right now. In this section, I will present my argument for using the original version of the K-Ratio. For an intuitive understanding of the Zephyr K-Ratio, it is enough to know that the more closely the actual cumulative return graph hugs its trend line, the smaller the standard error of the slope will be.

### Lars Kestner (Author of Quantitative Trading Strategies)

East Dane Designer Men’s Fashion. Give and Take Adam Grant. The measure of reward is the slope of that trend line. The modified, more recent K-Ratio, on the other hand, actually increases as we pass from monthly to quarterly data. I will argue that the modification has a detrimental effect in that situation. The second one, called Up-Down, is the mirror image of Down-Up: Here are the corresponding K-Ratios:.

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All this is mathematically and statistically perfectly sound, and it conveys meaningful and useful information about the funds’ cumulative return graphs. The Zephyr K-Ratio then uses as its measure of risk the degree to which the cumulative return graph deviates from that trend line. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. One reason for the use of trend lines is that they take the endpoint sensitivity out of the cumulative return graph. Managing Oneself Peter F.

The analogy to the Sharpe Ratio should be evident: Second Edition Nassim Nicholas Taleb. The modified K-Ratios, as shown in the legends of Figure 9, on laars other hand, are. That is reflected in the fact that the cumulative return graph of this portfolio slopes upward, and, on a logarithmic scale, it very closely resembles a straight line.

The Phoenix Project Gene Kim. If we were to rate a set of managers by these statistics, then the three managers Consistent, Down-Up, and Up-Down would rate exactly the same, that is, they would be seen as indistinguishable and equally desirable. The Innovator’s Dilemma Clayton M.

Since the cumulative return graph of the portfolio named Consistent in Figure 1 resembles a straight line much more than the other two, it will hug its trend line more closely. One could thus argue that the slope of the trend line is a better measure of a manager’s long-term return potential than the actual, realised cumulative return.