Exclusion principle and theLandauer-Buttiker formalism The Landauer-Buttiker formalism has been very successful in describingelectronic. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Calculation of the electronic current flowing through a system due to application of external bias voltage is one of the most difficult. Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Examples. Farkas Dániel Gergely. Msc physics student. 1. Contents. Difference of potencials; Difference of temperatures.

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This page was last edited on 19 Decemberat But there is still almost no energy loss.

Ballistic conduction

Transport becomes statistical and stochastic. The size and distribution of these contact spots is governed by the topological structures of the contacting surfaces forming the electrical contact. Conversely, the quantum confinement in the 1D GNR channel constricts the number of modes to carrier degeneracy and restrictions from the energy dispersion relationship and the Brillouin zone.

Ballistic thermal transport has been observed in multiple materials systems [8]. Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems. Over a limited distance, the electron wave function will remain coherent. If the electrons undergo inelastic interactions too, they lose energy and the result is a second mechanism of resistance.

Ballistic conduction is the unimpeded flow of charge, or energy-carrying particles, over relatively long distances in a material. Electrons can be scattered several ways in a conductor.

It is theoretically possible for ballistic conduction to be extended to other quasi-particles, but this has not been experimentally verified. Electrical contacts resulting in ballistic electron lanfauer are known as Sharvin Contacts. For example, ballistic transport can be observed in a metal nanowire: The electron alters its motion only upon collision with the walls.


Therefore, even in the case of a perfect ballistic transport, there is a fundamental ballistic conductance which saturates the current buttikfr the device with a resistance of approximately See List of thermal conductivities.

Ballistic conduction is not limited to electrons or holes but can also apply to phonons. Consider a coherent source of electrons connected to a conductor. Ballistic transport is observed when the mean free path of the electron is much longer than the dimension of the medium through which the electron travels.

In particular, for surfaces with high fractal dimension contact spots may be very small.

The widely encountered phenomenon of electrical contact resistance or ECR, arises as an electric current flowing through a rough interface is buttikeer to a limited number of contact spots.

Ballistic conduction differs from superconductivity due to the absence of the Meissner effect in the material.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The dominant scattering mechanism at room temperature is that of electrons emitting optical phonons. When the radius of a contact spot is larger than the mean free path of electrons, the contact resistance can be treated classically. It is often incorrectly thought that Si nanowires are quantum confined ballistic conductors. Like monochromatic light passing through milk, electrons undergo elastic interactions.

Non-ballistic electrons behave like light diffused in milk or reflected off a white wall or a piece of paper. This is because there is an energy to be paid to extract the electron from the medium work function.


The mean free path can be increased by reducing the number of impurities in a crystal or by lowering its temperature. Views Read Edit View history. Electrons which undergo inelastic interaction are then similar to non-monochromatic light. In terms of buttiekr mechanisms, optical phonon emission normally dominates, depending on the material and transport conditions.

Ballistic conduction – Wikipedia

Ballistic conduction is typically observed in quasi-1D structures, such as carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowiresbecause of extreme size quantization effects in these materials. From the resistance point of view, stochastic not oriented movement of electrons is useless even if they carry the same energy — they move thermally. InRolf Landauer proposed that conduction in a 1D system could be viewed as a transmission problem.

Some kinds of scattering can only cause a change in electron direction, others can cause energy loss. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards.

The contacts have a multiplicity of modes due to their larger size in comparison to the channel. However it is still possible to observe ballistic conduction in Si nanowires at very low temperatures 2—3 K.

A comparison with light provides an analogy between ballistic and non-ballistic conduction.