It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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The revenue was meant for the muqti’s own expenses, payment and maintenance of the troops and the rest had to be sent back to the king. The crucial element in this mechanism was the iqta that combined the two functions of collection and distribution without immediately endangering the unity of the political structure.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. He was in charge of revenue and finance, and controlled the other departments.

Iqta’ – Wikipedia

The office of Muqti was made hereditary and we are told that the salary of the Syste was also fixed at a higher percentage. A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. The principle of heredity was not that popular nor that irrelevant in allocation of certain major iqtas in the 13 th c.

During the time of Iltutmish, the Sultan paid soldiers of the central army with Iqtas wajh and from here onwards, we hear of the transferring of Muqtis. The important development was that there ssystem the possibility of retaining part of the surplus for oneself, illegally.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. There are significant variances in the actual implementation of Iqta’ systems throughout the different periods and in different syshem, so it is difficult to completely generalize them. The provinces were also called iqtas. There were two kinds of Iqtas viz.


Ghiyassudin Tughlaq introduced a policy marked by moderation. The diwan-i-insha headed by dahir-i-mumalik managed the royal correspondence. Democracy, literally, rule by the people. Also, Iqtas were not hereditary by law and had to be confirmed by a higher authority like the sultan or the king.

They united the Amirs of Persia and reorganized their land into Iqtas, whose borders remained largely similar to the predecessor states.

Muhammad of Ghur was the first to introduce the iqta system in India, but it was lltutrnish who gave it an institutional form. It was a period sgstem saw the systematization of agrarian exploitation and concentration of resources.

The business of the government was organised in several departments. The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them.

Iqta System

uqta This section is empty. The money was used to pay for the landowner’s army, which could be called by the Sultan at any time, making up for a relatively quick mobilisation and highly professional soldiers. However, during Firuz Shah Tughlaq’s reign, it became hereditary. Islam and other religions History of taxation Abolished taxes Taxation in Islam. The iqtadari system witnessed numerous changes during the Sultanate period.

Slavery, condition in which one human being was owned by another. Thank you for your feedback. Under Iqta System, the land of the empire was divided into several large and small tracts called Iqta and assigned these Iqtas to syatem soldiers, officers and nobles.

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. The shiqdar was responsible for maintaining law and order in their areas.

The iqtas were transferable, i.

The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them. The grant was merely a wage, and as soon as the land or its people were depleted, it was exchanged for a more productive area.


Systeem Sultan was an autocrat and his will was law, though he considered himself the deputy of the Khalifa. The Amir was responsible for maintenance of administration and military arrangement within the iqta.

Internet URLs are the best. Muqti combined the function of revenue collector, administrator, pay master and the military commander. The holders of large Iqta were the provincial governors, who had some administrative responsibilities also. They had no other right to the subjects apart from the taxes as long as taxes were paid.

The lack of sources for the Saiyyid dynasty leads to our complete lack of information regarding the iqta system under them. They had no other right to the subjects apart from the taxes as long as taxes were paid.

However, he made excellent use of the Iqta system as a tool of control and expanding revenue.


Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. The subjects can go to the King and address their grievances in case they are being subjugated by the muqtis.

Further, the Sultan had complete control over the size and tenure with the right to revoke it at will. There was a problem with your submission. The overarching theme was state power where the iqta was revocable and uninheritable. During the reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji, three types of provinces existed.