A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.
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Hurrian is an ergativeagglutinative language that, together with Urartianconstitutes the Hurro-Urartian family. Nonetheless, it is clear that these represent dialects of one language. By the late Bronze Age, Hurrian seems to have become extinct, except perhaps for remote mountainous areas east of the upper Tigris.
Hurrian was written mostly in cuneiform syllables, though a few late texts found at Hirrian modern Ras Shamra in Syria are written in the local alphabetic script, presumably by Ugaritic scribes. Starostin see similarities between Hurrian and the Northeast Caucasian languagesand thus place it in the Alarodian family. Nominalised verbs can undergo Suffixaufnahme.
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Hurrian and the Hurrians – Mark Ronan
It is -a when the verb is intransitive, -i when the verb is in the antipassive and -o in the Mitanni letter, -i in transitive verbs. The earliest Hurrian text fragments consist of lists of names and places from the end of the third millennium BC.
It remains, however, when a consonant-initial pronoun is attached: For example case markers more than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb.
Transitivity and intransitivity are clearly indicated in the morphology; only transitive verbs take endings that agree with the person and number of their subject. There was also a Hurrian-Akkadian creole, called Nuzispoken in the Mitanni provincial capital of Arrapha.
The language is also strongly ergative. Hurrian clitics stand for unique words, but are attached to other words as though they were suffixes.
Infinitive forms of the verb in Hurrian include both nominalised verbs participles and a more conventional infinitive. Both forms are free interchangeable. There is no difference between the form for transitive and intransitive verbs, there being agreement with the subject of the sentence. Texts in Urartian date to a year period from the ninth century until shortly before BC. For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. In Woodard, Roger D. Transitive potential forms are formed with -illet and -alletwhich are suffixed to the normal endings of the transitive indicative forms.
The so-called essive case can convey the meaning “as” and a condition, but also to express direction, the aim of a demand, the transition from one condition to another, the direct object in antipassive constructions where the hrammar subject receives the gramjar case instead of the ergativeand, in the variety of Nuzialso the dative. It is around this time that other hurroan, such as the Hittite language and the Ugaritic language also became extinct, in what is known as the Bronze Age collapse.
The direct object and intransitive subject, when they are not represented by an independent noun, grammxr expressed through the use of clitics, or pronouns see below. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode brammar login. Hurrian has at its disposal several paradigms for constructing relative clauses.
The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. There is no voiced consonant with an unvoiced counterpart, nor vice versa. Views Read View source View history. The meanings of many such suffixes have yet to be decoded. After the derivational suffix come those marking tense. The language of the Hurrians must have belonged to a widespread group of ancient Middle Eastern languages.
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In Hurrian, the function of the so-called ” article ” is not entirely clear, inasmuch as its use does not seem to resemble closely a typical definite article. In this process, the dependent modifiers of a noun share the noun’s case suffixes. The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language grammzr Hurrian.