River Processes: erosion, transportation and deposition & the Hjulström Curve. There are three main types of processes that occur in a river. These are erosion. Sizes of particles: boulders & cobbles (more than 15 mm), gravel 2 The Hjulstrøm curve shows that particles of a size around 1mm require the. The Hjulström curve is an early attempt to describe the experimental behavior of particle motion in a moving current. It plots the velocity of entrainment versus.

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Force may be applied perpendicular to a surface, such as pressure, or parallel to a surface, such as shear. The long profile — changing processes: Attrition Eroded rocks collide and break into smaller fragments. Even so, all three plots suffer from several shared problems. Pin It on Pinterest. Vertical erosion makes a river channel deeper.

Hydrology Geomorphology Curves Geography Geological techniques in science. Flocculation can also occur – where clay particles bond together and hence gain enough mass to sink to the river or sea bed. Water, being ever so slightly acidic 2will react with certain rocks and dissolve them. This is because these particles are so fine that a river would have to be almost perfectly stationary in order for them to fall out of solution.

Fine particles like clay and silt are transported in suspensionthey are suspended in the water. It is a function of the magnitude of orbital diameter and indirectly the wave period. Suspension is when material made up of very fine particles such as clay and silt is lifted as the result of turbulence and transported by the river.

You should really enable it for this site but most things should work without it. This will tell you whether that particle is eroded, transported or deposited at that velocity.


Describe the landforms associated with constructive plate margins and explain their formation 8 marks Answered by Grace D.

Normal wave base is the depth at which sediment begins to be moved on a daily base. The long profile of a river The long profile of a river shows changes in the height altitude of the course of a river from its source to its mouth. There are different types of load, including bedloadsolute or dissolved load and suspended load which held in the water. The critical erosion velocity curve shows the minimum velocity needed to for the river to erode pick up and transport material of different sizes e.

Transportation Transportation of material in a river begins when friction is overcome. You may have heard this called abrasion.

For a given velocity, thinner boundary layers reflect higher values of shear stress. Course sand of 0. In general, the entrainment velocity is less under wind than water because grains falling hjulsstrom air are more likely to trigger other grains into motion.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The main river process are summarised in the table below.

River Processes

The competence is the maximum size of load a river is able to carry whereas capacity is the total volume of material a river can transport. Headward erosion makes a river longer. The graph takes sediment particle size and water velocity into account. A general rule is that water motion reaches downward to about one-half the wavelength of the wave.

For grains less than 0. The acidity is caused by hjulsfrom dioxide in the atmosphere dissolving into the water. Solution is when dissolved material is carried by a river. During low flow periods rivers will tend to carry only dissolved and suspended load, and when velocities pick hjlstrom they will carry bedload as well. Storm wave base is the depth at which sediment begins to be cutve by storm-generated waves, and it can be substantially deeper than normal wave base.


This is a graph that shows the relationship between the size of sediment and the velocity required to erode lift ittransport it and deposit it. The plot shows several key concepts about the relationships between erosion, transportation, and deposition. Although an empirical approach will not allow us to understand grain motion in terms of the underlying physics, it will let us describe the initiation of grain curvr and predict it under limited experimental conditions.

This happens repeatedly until the grain is finally hjulsyrom. Solution – minerals are dissolved in water and carried along in solution.

Hjulström curve – Wikipedia

Traction – large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed. Coastal Landforms of Deposition.

The mean settling velocity or critical deposition velocity line shows the velocity at which a sediment particle drops to the riverbed. Larger grains are harder to move because they are heavier, and finer grains hkulstrom harder to move because they are more susceptible to cohesion.

Mechanics of Sediment Movement. Changes occur in the cross profile, wetted…. Look at the bottom of the fluvioglacial page to do a mix and match exercise.

Describe the Hjulström curve.

This often happens in areas where the geology is limestone and is dissolved in slightly acidic water. Flow is laminar when the paths of individual parcels of fluid, called streamlines, move only in the downstream direction.

The balance between inputs and outputs is known as the water balance or budget.