Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease of autosomal recessive inheritance which presents in childhood or early adulthood with. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome was first described in by Drs. Julius Hallervorden and Hugo Spatz with their study of a family of 12 in which five sisters.

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Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, which is a chemical that sends a signal in the brain. Serology for Wilson disease was negative.

These individuals have later onset, and their diverse phenotypes include early-onset Parkinson disease, severe intermittent dystonia, stuttering with palilalia or facial tics with repetitive hair caressing; all had evidence of increased basal ganglia iron. Meyer was followed by Elejalde et al. The term neurodegeneration with brain iron synddrome type 1, instead of HSD, eventually came to be used for this condition;[ 1 ] although, the most recent term for the disorder is pantothenate kinase PANK2 – associated neurodegeneration.

TEXT A number sign is used with this entry because neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-1 NBIA1also known as Hallervorden-Spatz disease, is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygosity mutation in the pantothenate kinase-2 gene PANK2; on chromosome 20p Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation.


Tremor in patients with HSD responds best to dopaminergic agents. Physical examination Physical examination reveals signs consistent with extrapyramidal and corticospinal dysfunction.

Brain Halllervorden Viral encephalitis Herpesviral encephalitis Limbic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Cavernous sinus thrombosis Brain abscess Amoebic. For all other hallervordfn, please send your remarks via contact us. A study reporting good outcomes in a hsllervorden patient with late onset PKAN has been performed.

Hallervorden-Spatz Disease

In most cases, infants and children with Seitelberger disease appear to develop normally until approximately 14 to 18 months of age, when they may begin to experience progressively increased difficulties in walking.

Mental deterioration and epilepsy jallervorden in some. C ] – Intermediate: All the abnormal movements subsided during sleep.

Further investigation and description was brought about by Meyer who diagnosed 30 separate cases of Syndromme. Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive neurologic condition characterized by involuntary trembling tremormuscular stiffness or inflexibility rigidityslowness of movement and difficulty carrying out voluntary movements.

Support Center Support Center. The course of the disease usually proceeds over years and affected individuals typically die in the second or third decade, but case reports describe patients surviving 30 years. She was also noticed to keep her head persistently extended with mouth wide open and trunk arched backwards in an awkward manner simultaneously. As the condition progresses, paralysis may develop that is associated with increased muscle stiffness rigidity and restricted movements spastic paralysis.


Axial rigidity was prominent finding. They share the challenges spwtz hardships.

Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: a rare cause of extrapyramidal manifestations

Treatment of HSS is unsatisfactory. Haplotype analysis suggested a founder effect that arose in Friesland, a northern province of the Netherlands, at the beginning of the ninth century, approximately 38 generations ago.

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Received Jun 19; Accepted May 1. Introduction Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome was first described in by Drs. These imaging features are fairly diagnostic of Haallervorden and have been termed the eye-of-the-tiger sign.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

They reported 2 unrelated adult patients with cognitive dysfunction who had the characteristic sign on MRI but did not have mutations in the PANK2 gene. She had generalized rigidity. Here we present four HSD cases with different clinical pictures. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration PKANalso known as neurodegeneration with brain iron hallervirden 1 NBIA1also called Hallervorden—Spatz syndrome[1] [2] [3] is a degenerative disease of the brain that can lead to parkinsonismdystoniadementiaand ultimately death.

Deep tendon reflexes were exaggerated and babinski sign was positive [ Video 2 ].