1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.
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Are epidemics in zooplankton under top-down control?. This variation often follows a certain pattern, which is frequently discussed in the context of local adaptation Local adaptation: Helminths are not a taxonomic group. This summary is followed by Chapter 3, which introduces the reader to certain parasite species that are frequently mentioned in the book.
They have a bivalve shell covering the body but not the head, four to six pairs of legs, and two pairs of antennae used for swimming. Process by which certain phenotypes are favored over other phenotypes.
The costs of parasitism differ not only across parasite Parasite: However, the microsporidium Larssonia sp. Chapter 10 Experiments with Daphnia and Parasites introduces a number of experiments that one may do with Daphnia and its parasites within the framework of a student course or for research purposes.
Group of interbreeding individuals and their offspring. A central chapter of this book is ” Epidemiology.
Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia by Dieter Ebert
It has also been suggested that epibiontic filter feeders compete parasitisk their hosts for food Kankaala and Eloranta Kankaala P, Ecokogy P Epizooic ciliates Vorticella sp. Parasites may lower the ability of their hosts to escape predators Predator: An extreme example of altered predator exposure would be a case in which the parasite manipulates its host’s behavior to facilitate it own transmission Transmission: In asexual epdemiology, this definition cannot be applied; in this case, a population is a group of phenotypically matching individuals living in the same area.
A different approach to host—parasite interactions across populations is the question of how much a dispersing host suffers when it encounters a locally adapted parasite in a novel population.
Also used to describe change in the demographic structure of the population sex ratio, age and size structure, etc. Chapters 8 and 9 address aspects of parasitism at the population level.
I do not include epibionts in this book, because I feel that there is less need to discuss the epidemiology Epidemiology: They may be intra- or extracellular. Historically this meant, however, that parasites, and in particular microparasites Microparasite: Process by which certain phenotypes are favored kf other phenotypes. I will maintain a Web site on my home institution’s server to report updates and correct errors.
Which factors explain parasite richness?. Order of the Entomostraca.
Environmental factors, such as temperature and feeding conditions, also play a role in the expression of disease symptoms. Extent to which an individual contributes its genes to future generations in relation to the contribution of other genotypes in the same population at the same time.
Before I discuss how to estimate host specificity, I will briefly outline some problems that are important from an evolutionary perspective. Clonal selection is found when clones differ in their lifetime reproductive success and is usually seen in the form of genotype frequency changes. Everything you always wanted to know about parasitism in Daphnia. Morbidity and mortality of a host that is caused by parasites and pathogens.
Chapter 9 introduces the important question of whether parasites regulate their host populations or even drive them to extinction. Host clones originating from within or between populations Population: A slightly different approach was used by Bengtsson and Ebert Bengtsson J, Ebert D Distribution and impacts of microparasites on Daphnia in a rockpool metapopulation.
Thus, it is not surprising that the apparent effect of parasites on host fitness Fitness: These costs may be ecolgoy visible, in the form of reduced fecundity or survival, but may in some cases be subtle. In this case, gigantism is often associated with parasite-induced host castration. Potential for coevolution and frequency-dependent selection. They have a bivalve shell covering the body but not the head, four to six pairs of legs, and two pairs of antennae used for swimming.
Ecol Lett7: In Cox FEG ed.
Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia
This bacterium first castrates its host around 10 days after infection but then allows it to live for many more days over 40 days after infection. Changes in allele frequencies over time. I point out which features of parasites make them attractive ecological factors and why the study of parasites may add to our understanding of Daphnia biology. As mentioned above, a number of field studies have shown that parasitized females often have reduced fecundity as compared with healthy i.