Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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If the water table is such that the retained soil remain fully submerged, in such a case the saturated soil results in increasing the weight of the backfill, decreases the angle of repose of the soil which ultimately amounts to increase in pressure on the wall.

Skip to search form Skip to main content. The brackets in this case are known cuonterfort buttresses and by virtue of their location they are subjected to compressive forces. References Publications referenced by this paper.

Four Common Types of Rigid, Monolithic Concrete Retaining Walls

ocunterfort For surcharged walls b may vary between 0. To avoid failure of the retaining wall it is necessary that the following requirements are satisfied. If the retaining wall is allowed to move towards the back fill, it will compress the soil and the pressure thus exerted is known as passive pressure. The lateral pressure exerted by the submerged soil is considered to comprise of the following two components.

Figure 3 from Reliability Analysis of Counterfort Retaining Walls – Semantic Scholar

The overturning moment is stabilized by the weight of wall and cunterfort weight of the soil above the heel slab the weight of soil over the toe is neglected. Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge: The stability of the wall is partially provided by the weight of earth on the heel.


The passive pressure developed by the key resists sliding and raises the factor of safety to required limit. Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill. The inclined fill is also known as surcharge.

The size of the wall is so kept that there is no tensile stress developed at any section of the wall under any condition of loading. The material retained by the wall is generally known as backfill. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill: How well do we know what we are doing?

Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill: Based on the founterfort of achieving stability, retaining walls are classified into the following types: The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base.

The pressure mainly depends upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall. This is shown in pressure diagram in Fig. The lateral pressure due to the backfill and surcharge if any tends to overturn the retaining wall about its toe.

Due to buoyancy the weight of submerged soil will be less and its repose will also be much less. Design of Two-way Slabs. Let the backfill be moist dounterfort dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i.

Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering Kok Kwang Phoon Wall retaining partly submerged backfill. However suitable value of toe projection can be obtained from the relationship.

Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Monte Carlo method First-order reliability method. Wall retaining submerged backfill. Before proceeding with the structural design it is necessary to ensure that the preliminary dimensions assumed for detaining various components of the wall will render it safe against above referred types of failures.

In case the water table does not rise up to full height of retaining wall, this will result in a situation where the countsrfort is partially submerged and partly dry. The pressure distribution is triangular. Based on these dimensions the wall is checked for stability checked for overturning, sliding and maximum pressure at toe and in case the stability requirements are satisfied, structural design of different wall components is taken up.


Hence total lateral earth counterforh at the base of wall is given by. Counterfort Retaining Walls When the height of the retaining wall to counerfort provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. Showing of 32 references.

Wall retaining back-fill in slope: Probability, reliability and statistical methods in engineering de-sign. These walls are constructed in brick masonry, stone masonry or plain cement concrete and it is shown in Fig. From This Paper Figures, tables, and topics from this paper. Counterfoet pressure thus developed is termed retainlng soil earth pressure.

It is a common practice to neglect the passive resistance of the soil in front of the toe of the wall in this check. The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts. Wall retaining backfill in slope.

The foundations of the retaining wall should be placed at such a depth awll soil of required bearing capacity is available. Monte Carlo method Search for additional papers on this topic.

Design of Isolated Column Footing. This buttressed wall is identical to a counterfort retaining wall with the main difference that the vertical brackets are provided in front of the wall on face opposite to the face retaining back fill as shown in Fig.