(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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Journal of Evolutionary Biology buof The helio-and thigmothermic behaviour of the Andean toad permits the maintenance of high core temperature s;inulosus morning which probably increases the digestion rate and accelerate growth. Water in the containers was changed every 72 h and then the containers were randomly rearranged. Where it occurs it tends to be abundant. Articles with ‘species’ microformats Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations Taxonomy articles created by Polbot All stub articles.

This Bufonidae article is a stub. We also predict that will exist differences in assimilation among larval as a function of geographic precedence.

These authors propose also that local abiotic conditions, especially water temperature, sppinulosus explain the adults morphological divergence observed in individuals from the Tatio population, which represents an extreme in the morphological variation observed for this species.

However, our results do not support this hypothesis. Rhinella spinulosa is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is found in the Andean ArgentinaBoliviaChileand Peru.


However, assuming that the absorption of ash is constant for all of the diets and the time remains in water was the same; this type of error is acceptable to determine the comparative assimilation efficiency. Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: Bufo spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from buof northern and central zones of Chile: The unexplained spinuloshs was probably due to evaporative cooling.

Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads under the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature. It breeds in temporary ponds, altiplano lagoons, and slow flowing streams. Advances in Ecological Research Hughes RN ed Diet selection: For each temperature treatment and locality of origin, three replicates were used for each of two diet treatments: Rhinella spinulosa Wiegmann Las barras de error corresponden al EE. According that, the above conditions it seems no affect the response evaluated in our experiment.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 96A: Therefore, if the larvae from different studied localities consume equivalent diets, it would be reasonable to buro that their digestive biochemical processes are similar Toloza a.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Pablo Sabat and three anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions to the former version of this manuscript. Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures at or slightly above ambient levels.


The authors would also like to thank Spinuloshs. Rhinella spinulosa Conservation status. Changes in assimilation spinulpsus have been described in ectotherms, allowing them to utilize different types of foods more efficiently HornBenavides el al.

Once the larvae reached a Gosner stage between 21 and 23 they were randomly placed at a density of 15 individuals mL -1in plastic containers of a 1 L capacity and sinulosus photoperiod of 12O: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Contrary to our predictions, the individuals from different geographic localities presented similar AE values for both experimental diets.

The bladder contents probably spinuloaus as water reserves during basking when evaporative water loss was high. Journal of Zoology London Retrieved 6 March International Review of Hydrobiology Retrieved 29 April Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help.

These latter values are comparable to our results for B. Although there is a lack of systematic studies spinuosus the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that the larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.

International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry