Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. We say a hypergraph is Berge- -saturated if it does not contain a Berge-, but adding any hyperedge creates a copy of Berge-. The -uniform. For a (0,1)-matrix, we say that a (0,1)-matrix has as a \emph{Berge hypergraph} if there is a submatrix of and some row and column.

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An algorithm for tree-query membership of a distributed query.

However, the transitive closure of set membership for such hypergraphs does induce a partial orderand “flattens” the hypergraph into a partially ordered set. Because of hypergraph duality, the study of edge-transitivity is identical to the begge of vertex-transitivity.

In this sense it is a direct generalization of graph coloring. A hypergraph is then just a collection of trees with common, shared nodes that is, a given internal node or leaf may occur in several different trees.

Note that, with this definition of equality, graphs are self-dual:. The degree d v of a vertex v is the number of edges that contain it. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hypergraphs. There are two variations of this generalization. Ramsey’s theorem and Line graph of a hypergraph are typical examples. Thus, for the above example, the incidence matrix is simply.

The graph corresponding to the Levi graph of this generalization is a directed acyclic hypergrahs. By augmenting a class of hypergraphs with replacement rules, graph grammars can be generalised to allow hyperedges. A hypergraph homomorphism is a map from the vertex hypergrzphs of one hypergraph to another such that each edge maps to one other edge. In one, the edges consist not only of a set of vertices, but may also contain subsets of vertices, subsets of subsets of vertices and so on ad infinitum.


In particular, there is no transitive closure of set membership for such hypergraphs.

Hypergraph – Wikipedia

However, it is often desirable to study hypergraphs where all hyperedges have the same cardinality; a k – uniform hypergraph is a hypergraph such that all its hyperedges have size k. This allows graphs with edge-loops, which need not contain vertices at all. One possible generalization of a hypergraph is to allow edges to point at other edges.

Many theorems and concepts involving graphs also hold for hypergraphs. Minimum number of used distinct colors over all colorings is called the chromatic number of a hypergraph.

Some methods for studying symmetries of graphs extend to hypergraphs. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. In contrast with ordinary undirected graphs for which there is a single natural notion of cycles and acyclic graphsthere are multiple natural non-equivalent definitions of acyclicity for hypergraphs which collapse to ordinary graph acyclicity for the special case of ordinary graphs.

Since trees are widely used throughout computer science and many other branches of mathematics, one could say that hypergraphs appear naturally as well. Those four hyperggaphs of acyclicity are comparable: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Because hypergraph links can have any cardinality, there are several notions of the concept of bergd subgraph, called subhypergraphspartial hypergraphs and section hypergraphs. A hypergraph is said to be vertex-transitive or vertex-symmetric begge all of its vertices are symmetric.

This definition is very restrictive: A hypergraph H may be represented by a bipartite graph BG as follows: If all edges have the same cardinality kthe hypergraph is said to be uniform or k -uniformor is called a k -hypergraph. A subhypergraph is a hypergraph with some vertices removed. In essence, every edge is just an internal node of a tree or directed acyclic graphand vertices are the leaf nodes. Some mixed hypergraphs are uncolorable for any number of colors.


The collection of hypergraphs is a category with hypergraph homomorphisms as morphisms.

Graphs And Hypergraphs

In computational geometrya hypergraph may sometimes be called a range space and then the hyperedges are called ranges. Alternately, edges can be allowed to point at other edges, irrespective of the requirement that the edges be ordered as directed, acyclic graphs. Retrieved from ” https: This page was last edited on 27 Decemberat So, for example, this generalization arises naturally as a model of term algebra ; edges correspond to terms and vertices correspond to constants or variables.

Hypergraphs can be viewed as incidence structures. There are many generalizations of classic hypergraph coloring.

Berge-cyclicity can obviously be tested in linear time yypergraphs an exploration of the incidence graph. In particular, there is a bipartite “incidence graph” or ” Levi graph ” corresponding to every hypergraph, and conversely, most, but not all, bipartite graphs can be regarded as incidence graphs of hypergraphs.

The generalized incidence matrix for such hypergraphs is, by definition, a square matrix, of a rank equal to the total number of vertices plus edges. When the vertices of a hypergraph are explicitly labeled, one has the notions of equivalenceand also of equality.