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A caliper British spelling also calliper angku;, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object.
Many types of calipers permit reading out a measurement on a ruled scale, a dial, or a digital display. But a caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing points.
The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured and then the caliper is then removed and the distance read by measuring between the tips with a measuring tool, such as a ruler. It is used in many fields such as mechanical engineeringmetalworkingforestrywoodworkingscience and medicine. A plurale tantum sense of the word “calipers” coexists in natural usage with the regular noun sense of “caliper”. That is, sometimes a caliper is treated cognitively like a pair of glasses or a pair of scissors, resulting in a phrase such as “hand me those calipers” or “those calipers are mine” in reference to one unit.
Also existing colloquially but not in formal usage is referring to a vernier caliper as a ” vernier ” or a “pair of verniers”.
In imprecise colloquial usage, some speakers extend this even to dial calipers, although they involve no vernier scale. In machine-shop usage, the term “caliper” is often used in contradistinction to ” micrometer “, even though outside micrometers are technically a form of caliper. In this usage, “caliper” implies only the form factor of the vernier or dial caliper or its digital counterpart.
The earliest caliper has been found in the Greek Giglio wreck near the Italian coast. The ship find dates to the 6th century BC. The wooden piece already featured a fixed and a movable jaw. A bronze caliper, dating from 9 AD, was used for minute measurements during the Chinese Xin dynasty. The caliper had an inscription stating that it was “made on a gui-you day at new moon of the first month of the first year of the Shijian guo period.
The modern vernier caliper, reading to thousandths of an inch, was invented by American Joseph R. It was the first practical tool for exact measurements that could be sold at a price within the reach of ordinary machinists.
The same observations and technique apply to this type of caliper, as for the above inside caliper.
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With some understanding of their limitations and usage, these instruments can provide a vrrnier degree of accuracy and repeatability. They are especially useful when measuring over very large distances; consider if the calipers are used to measure a large diameter pipe. A vernier caliper does not have the depth capacity to straddle this large diameter while at the same time reach the outermost points of the pipe’s diameter.
They are made from high carbon steel. In the metalworking field, a divider caliper, popularly called a compass, is used in the process of marking out locations. The points are sharpened so that they act as scribers, one leg can then be placed in the dimple created by a center or prick punch and the other leg pivoted so that it scribes a line on the workpiece’s surface, thus forming an arc or circle. A divider caliper is also used to measure a distance between two points on a vernifr.
The two caliper’s ends are brought to the two points whose distance is being measured. The caliper’s opening is then either measured on xngkup separate ruler and then converted to the actual distance, or it is measured directly on a scale drawn on the map. On a nautical chart the distance is often measured on the latitude scale appearing on the sides of the map: Dividers angkupp also used in the medical profession. An ECG also EKG caliper transfers distance on an electrocardiogram ; in vernoer with the appropriate scale, the heart rate can be determined.
A pocket caliper versions was invented by cardiologist Verner A. Oddleg calipersHermaphrodite calipersor Oddleg jennysas pictured on the left, are generally used to scribe a line at a anhkup distance from the edge of a workpiece. The bent angkyp is used to run along the workpiece edge while the scriber makes its mark at a predetermined distance, this ensures a line parallel to the edge.
In the diagram at left, the uppermost caliper has a slight shoulder in the bent leg allowing it to sit on the edge more securely, the lower caliper lacks this feature but has a renewable scriber that angkyp be adjusted for wear, as well as being replaced when excessively worn.
The vernier, dial, and digital calipers give a direct reading of the distance measured with high accuracy and precision. They are functionally identical, with different ways of reading the result. These calipers comprise a calibrated scale with a fixed jaw, and another jaw, with a pointer, that slides along the scale.
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The distance between the jaws is then read in different gernier for the three types. The simplest method is to read the position of the pointer directly on the scale. When the pointer is between two markings, the user can mentally interpolate to improve the precision of the reading. This would be a simple calibrated caliper; but the addition of a vernier scale allows more accurate interpolation, and is the universal practice; this is the vernier caliper.
Vernier, dial, and digital calipers can measure internal dimensions using the uppermost jaws in the picture at rightexternal dimensions using the pictured lower jaws, veriner in many cases depth by the use of a probe that is attached to the movable head and slides along the centre of angkupp body. This probe is slender and can anhkup into deep grooves that may prove difficult for other measuring tools.
The vernier scales may include metric measurements on the lower part of the scale and inch measurements on the upper, or vice versa, in countries that use angkhp.
Vernier calipers commonly used in industry provide a precision to 0. Instead of using a vernier mechanism, which requires some practice to use, the dial caliper reads the final fraction of a millimeter or inch on a anbkup dial.
In this instrument, a small, precise rack and pinion drives a pointer on a circular dialallowing direct reading without the need to read a vernier scale. Typically, the pointer rotates once every inch, tenth of an inch, or 1 millimeter.
This measurement must be added to the coarse whole inches or centimeters read from the slide. The dial is usually arranged to be rotatable beneath the pointer, allowing for “differential” measurements the measuring of the difference in size between two objects, or the setting of the dial using a master object and fernier being able to read directly the plus-or-minus variance in size of subsequent objects relative to the master object.
A popular refinement replaces the analog dial with an electronic digital ahgkup that displays the reading as a numeric ankgup. Rather than a rack and pinionthese calipers use a linear encoder. Some digital calipers can be switched between centimeters or millimeters, and inches. All provide for zeroing the display at any point along the slide, allowing the same sort of differential measurements as with the dial caliper. Digital calipers may contain a “reading hold” feature, allowing the reading of dimensions after use in awkward locations where the display cannot be seen.
Increasingly, digital calipers offer a serial data output to allow them to be interfaced with a dedicated recorder or a personal computer. The digital interface significantly decreases the time to make and record a series of measurements, and it also improves the reliability of the records.
A suitable device to convert the serial data output to common computer interfaces such as RSUniversal Serial Busor wireless can verniet built or purchased.
With such a converter, measurements can be directly entered into a spreadsheeta statistical process control program, or similar software. Like dial calipers, the slide of a digital caliper can usually be locked using a lever or thumb-screw. Some digital calipers contain a capacitive linear encoder. A pattern of bars is etched directly on the printed circuit board in the slider. Under the scale anggkup the caliper another printed circuit board also contains an etched pattern of lines.
The combination of these printed circuit boards forms two variable capacitors. The two capacitances are out of phase. As the slider moves the capacitance changes in a linear fashion and in a repeating pattern.
The circuitry built into the slider counts the bars as the slider moves and does a anngkup interpolation based on the magnitudes of the capacitors to find the precise position of the slider.
Other digital calipers contain an inductive linear encoder, which allows robust performance in the presence of contamination such as coolants. A caliper using a calibrated screw for measurement, rather than a slide, is called an external micrometer caliper verniea micrometer caliper or, more often, simply a micrometer. Sometimes the term caliperreferring to any other type in this article, is held in contradistinction to micrometer.
Vernier calipers are rugged and have verniwr lasting accuracy, are coolant proof, are not affected angkip magnetic fields, and are largely shock proof. They may have both centimeter and inch scales. However, vernier calipers require good eyesight or a magnifying glass to read angkhp can be difficult to read from a distance or from awkward angles.
It angoup relatively easy to misread the last digit. In production environments, reading vernier calipers all day long is error-prone and is annoying to the workers. Dial calipers are comparatively easy to read, especially when seeking exact center angkkup rocking and observing the needle movement.
They can be set to 0 at any point for comparisons. They are usually fairly susceptible to shock damage. They are also very prone to getting dirt in the gears, which can cause accuracy problems. Digital calipers switch easily between centimeter and inch systems. They can be set to 0 easily at any point with full count in either direction, and can take measurements even if the display is completely hidden, either by using a “hold” key, or by zeroing the display and closing the jaws, showing the correct measurement, but negative.
They can be mechanically and electronically fragile.
Most also require batteries, and do not resist coolant well. They are also only moderately shockproof, and can be vulnerable to dirt. Calipers may read to a resolution of 0. A caliper must be properly applied against the part in order to take the desired measurement. For example, when measuring the thickness of a plate a vernier caliper must be held at right angles to the piece. Some practice may be needed to measure round or angup objects correctly.
Accuracy of measurement when using a caliper is highly dependent on the skill of the operator. Regardless of type, a caliper’s jaws must be forced into contact with the part being measured. As both part and caliper are always to some extent elasticthe amount of force used affects the indication. A consistent, firm touch is correct.
Too much force results in an underindication as part and tool distort; too little force gives insufficient contact and an overindication. This is a greater problem with a caliper incorporating a wheel, which lends mechanical advantage. This is especially the case with digital calipers, calipers out of adjustment, or calipers with a poor quality beam.
Simple calipers are uncalibrated; the measurement taken must be compared against anvkup scale. Whether the scale is part of the caliper or not, all analog calipers—verniers and dials—require good eyesight in order to achieve the highest precision. Digital calipers have the advantage in this area.